Most medical research institutions - universities, hospitals and drug companies - ignore a federal law that requires publicly reporting the results of new treatments on people.

An investigation by found that Stanford University, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and many others violated the federal law.

The gap in reporting leaves patients and their doctors without the information on the benefits, and potential risks, of treatment, according to the health and medicine news site. The federal government can fine institutions for failing to disclose trial results – Stat estimates the drug companies would owe $25 billion over the last seven years – but no fines have been assessed.